Advanced C by Peter D. Hipson

By Peter D. Hipson

The whole programmer's consultant to C luck. potency tips and strategies for debugging C courses and bettering their velocity, reminiscence utilization, and clarity. whole insurance of disk records together with sequential entry, textual content, binary and random entry. insurance of the internals of the normal header documents: variable, realizing the prototypes, and particular programming issues.

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34 Data Types, Constants, Variables, and Arrays CCC CCC C CC 2 In both files, this information constitutes a definition of the variable, but not a declaration (which would have allocated the storage for the variable three times—once for each file). You might ask what would happen if the variables never were declared in any module. The linker (not the compiler) usually is the one to complain, by displaying an error message. The typical error message is that an object was undefined (the message provides the name of the object).

Long lCount = 0; /* An integer of long size, initialized */ This declaration leaves no doubt about the size of the object. First, because long and short are defaulted to integer types (to create a long double, you must specify long 35 Part I • Honing Your C Skills in your declaration), the keyword int is optional. It might be better style to include it (I usually try to). The variable lCount is initialized explicitly; if it were a static variable, this initialization would be optional, but by including it, you can be sure of its value.

An example of a global variable, in a single source file. long long int int lSum; // Using ‘int’ is optional. lCount; void SumInt( int nItem) { lSum += (long)nItem; ++lCount; } void SubInt( int nItem) { lSum -= (long)nItem; —lCount; } int Average() { int nReturn = 0; nReturn = (int)(lSum / lCount); return (nReturn); } The preceding code fragment has a set of two functions that add to a sum and count (used to create an average), and return an average. If you look at the Average() function, you may wonder why I thought that I could divide two long (32-bit) integers and be sure that I would get a returned value that fit in a short (16-bit) integer.

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