By National Research Council, Division on Earth and Life Studies, Environment and Resources Commission on Geosciences, Panel on Atmospheric Effects of Aviation
The NRC Panel at the Atmospheric results of Aviation (PAEAN) was once demonstrated to supply tips to NASA's Atmospheric results of Aviation software (AEAP) by means of comparing the appropriateness of the program's examine plan, appraising the project-sponsored effects relative to the present nation of clinical wisdom, picking out key medical uncertainties, and suggesting study actions prone to lessen these uncertainties.
Over the previous couple of years, the panel has written periodic experiences of either the subsonic aviation (Subsonic Assessment-SASS) and the supersonic aviation (Atmospheric results of Stratospheric Aircraft-AESA) elements of AEAP, together with: An intervening time evaluate of the Subsonic review undertaking (1997); An meantime evaluate of AEAP's Emissions Characterization and Near-Field Interactions parts (1997); An meantime overview of the AESA venture: technological know-how and growth (1998); Atmospheric results of aviation: A evaluation of NASA's Subsonic evaluate venture (1998). This file constitutes the ultimate evaluate of AESA and should be the final file written by means of this panel. the first viewers for those stories is this system managers and scientists affiliated with AEAP, even though now and again the subjects mentioned are of curiosity to a much broader audience.
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Extra info for A Review of NASA's 'Atmospheric Effects of Stratospheric Aircraft' Project
Because these engines have not yet been fully built and tested, considerable uncertainties remain about combustion processes and exhaust constituents. The mechanisms by which particulate emissions are formed are especially unclear. Atmospheric Transport. Quantitative understanding of atmospheric transport is needed to fully assess the effects of aircraft emissions deposited in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. Current models do not simulate these processes accurately, as evidenced by discrepancies between modeled and measured "age-of-air" estimates.
However, substantial challenges remain, as the emissions of NOx and other species from a full-scale engine have not yet been tested. Thus, the use of a range of likely emission indices for assessment will continue to be necessary. Although combustor design has been driven strongly by the desire to reduce NOx emissions, other emissions also can have an impact on the stratosphere, and progress has been made in characterizing the emissions of several of these other species. NASA has projected emission indices for CO2 and water vapor of 3155 and 1237 g/kg fuel burned, respectively, for the year 2015, the same values used for current generation aircraft turbine engines.
018CNCATTAS (table continued on next page) To overcome these difficulties, it has been postulated that formation and growth is promoted by the presence of ''chemi-ions'' generated by combustion (Yu and Turco, 1998). The main effect of these ions is to increase the efficiency of the collision in the coagulation process, leading to larger aerosol sizes (in the case of neutral particles). However, the number densities of ions needed to reproduce the observations (on the order of 3 X 109 cm-3 at the exit of the engines) have not been substantiated by measured emissions.