By Margaret Akinyi Abira
This examine, carried out in Kenya, provides the 1st perception into the functionality of a built remedy wetland receiving pulp and paper mill wastewater within the tropics.
The wetland successfully got rid of natural topic, suspended solids, phenols and meals. BOD and phenols relief premiums are stated for the 1st time. layout parameters and guidance for the set-up and upkeep of a full-scale wetland are suggested. The learn concludes that integrating a full-scale wetland, as a tertiary degree with the present remedy ponds could considerably increase the standard of water in River Nzoia downstream of the effluent discharge.
This is a worthy source publication for scientists, managers and scholars within the box of wetland ecology, water and environmental management.
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Extra resources for A Pilot Constructed Treatment Wetland for Pulp and Paper Mill Wastewater: Performance, Processes and Implications for the Nzoia River, Kenya UNESCO-IHE PhD
In general, the nitrogen requirement for microbial metabolism is satisfied if the BOD:N ratio is less or equal to 18:1 (Gray, 2004). Gray (2004) asserts that at higher ratios the metabolism is much less efficient. The ratio was 24:1 and 18:1 respectively for the stabilisation ponds 3 and 4 respectively. This may have created an environment for slow growth resulting in low bacterial numbers. The second reason is the effluent toxicity and variation in the wastewater quality that could affect the acclimation of the microorganisms (Werker and Hall, 1999).
Additional sampling was carried out between July 2003 and June 2005 (n = 4). 22 Chapter 2 Materials and Methods Physical and chemical quality characterization In-situ measurements In-situ measurements were recorded for pH, electrical conductivity (EC), DO, temperature and total dissolved solids (TDS) using a portable Multi-parameter Water Quality Monitor, model 6820-10M-0, manufactured by YSI Incorporated, USA. The measurements were taken at different reaches, including the overflows of the ponds just below the water surface.
7 m2 were constructed for the subsurface flow system. The cells were operated in parallel. 8 m (depth) in size. The pairs were initially planted with Cyperus immensus (series A), Typha domingensis (series B), Phragmites mauritianus (series C) and Cyperus papyrus (series D) respectively. 1. 8m (depth) planted with Typha domingensis (series E) was included for comparison. Construction commenced in December 2001 and was completed at the end of June 2002. The cells were constructed with concrete blocks.