A Handbook of Pronunciation by Luciano Canepari

By Luciano Canepari

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Ese cases involve vocoids which are neither short nor monotimbric diphthongs. 30). ‹en the first element of a diphthong is the same as that of a monophthong given together in the vocogram, it is possible to show the monophthong and the diphthong together by showing the diphthong with a dashed line, instead of an unbroken one (which would indicate the diphthong alone). ‹en variant diphthongs occur, they are denoted by grey markers together with unbroken lines (or, in the case of an unstressed variant, the marker will be an unshaded figure with the edge and line both dashed).

J) or (µ Ω]+ , µ Ω7 )Ç ç(µ Ω )Ç ç(w Ω )Ç ç(µ = , µ)Ç (–) ç(', w)Ç (–, =) ç(Xh , ºf )Ç ç(Xh /, ºf /)Ç ç(Hf )Ç Semi-approximant (/, ã) (/, %) (/, F) ç(°j)Ç ç(¥f. )Ç ç(j:]f) or (µ ]fË )Ç 1. prelude (/, =) (/, j) ç(µ Ωh )Ç ç(w f )Ç Laryngeal approximant (h, H) (/, ·) (+) (´) (±) (=) (≠) ç(hf , Hf )Ç ç(Hf „)Ç ç(hî≠ J)Ç ç(hî≠ ˆ)Ç ç(' î≠ )Ç ç(hî≠ )Ç ç(hî≠ „)Ç 45 ∫ap ({Ó}, [) ({V}, e)* (/, ®) ç(͢, ˘R )Ç ç(͢ˆ, ˘R ˆ)Ç ç(#˘ )Ç Constrictive trill (º, ˜) ç(K#=H , K#H )Ç Lateralized flap (r, m) (◊ , ©) ç(R:Î˱ &, R:ÎË&)Ç ç((R:Î˱ &ˆ, R:ÎË&ˆ)Ç Lateralized approximant (+ 2 semi-…) (/, S) (/, Ã) (/, ¸) (/, Í) (/, >) (/, ˛) (/, <) (/, <) (/, ‰) ç(VX< &„)Ç ç(∑¥§ &)Ç ç(<Î &)Ç ç(<< &)Ç ç(<< &„)Ç ç(<< &ˆ„)Ç ç(µXΩ < &„)Ç ç(µ

1. 32. Slit and grooved constrictives: (†) and (s). slit † s grooved In the case of approximants, there is visibly more space between the articulators, and the horizontal line (used with constrictives) is omitted. 3). 2). 1-3) are marked with a black dot placed upon the articulator which is in motion (whether this is the tongue tip, the uvula, or the lips). 33). In the same figure, we can see çsequential articulatory compositionsÇ as well, which show two rapid tappings for (r), followed by two çopenÇ positions, with a white background.

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