A Grammar of Modern Breton by Ian J. Press

By Ian J. Press

The sequence builds an intensive number of prime quality descriptions of languages around the globe. every one quantity bargains a finished grammatical description of a unmarried language including absolutely analyzed pattern texts and, if acceptable, a thesaurus and different correct details that's on hand at the language in query. There are not any regulations as to language relatives or quarter, and even though specified realization is paid to hitherto undescribed languages, new and necessary remedies of higher recognized languages also are incorporated. No theoretical version is imposed at the authors; the one criterion is a excessive general of medical caliber.

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Extra resources for A Grammar of Modern Breton

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Strength We have seen that there may be some weakness in the positing of a consonantal correlation of voice in Breton. In addition, vowel quantity presents an opposition only under stress and is bound with the quality or quantity of the following sound. Will the character of the following sound provide us with our distinctive feature? So far there have been the restraints imposed by positional considerations. The major distinctive feature should, within reason, be non-restricted for position. A neutralization of fortis and lenis as voiceless lenis has been noted.

Lochenn [Ηώ! s e n ] "hut" - e loien [(e)'llo:z€n] "I lodged" (loanword). And they are accompanied, as so often, by a difference in vocalic quantity. Just as the native speaker "feels" a difference between the "voiced" and "voiceless" palatal fricatives, a difference not easily justified in phonological terms, so there may be felt to be a [χ]-[γ] difference. These are velar fricatives, though the voiced lenis may be laryngeal. g. c'hoazh [*7wa:Z] "still, yet". Between vowels after the stress [x] is infrequent sac'han ['ssaxxa] "(to) stagnate" - sac'han ['ssar^or] "(to) put in a bag".

This extra-open realization is clearly definable; the others, however, despite the correlation with quantity and thence with the following segment, are somewhat randomly distributed, and it seems more acceptable to propose /0/ alone as a phoneme. 4. Nasal Vowels Basically, all the vowels can be nasalized. Particularly in the west and north-west -an. -iä (very common as infinitive and, only for the first, superlative endings) are pronounced orally. Examples: Phonology 31 dansal [ ' d ö s a l ] " ( t o ) d a n c e " , skanv [ ' s k e w ] "light ( A J ) B finval [ ' f l v a l ] " ( t o ) move", debrin ['debrl] "(to) eat" tenval [ ' t e : v a l ] " d a r k " , blench ['bl'es] " e x t r e m i t y " , tren [ ' tr e: ] " t r a i n " , krenv [ ' k r e ( : ) ] " s t r o n g " bleunv [ ' b i n ] " f l o w e r s " , (eun occurs open only) pyns t ' p y s ] "well ( w a t e r ) " , plunv [ ' p l y ( : ) ] " f e a t h e r s " donjer [ ' d o z e r ] " d i s g u s t " , donv [ ' d o ] " t a m e " (on occurs close only) It does seem that we have the phonemes /«/ - /e/, as the environments are impossible to delimit.

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