This guide discusses a variety of platforms and the gear (components or assemblies) they contain, and describes beneficial properties and changes. this data is helping method designers and operators in picking and utilizing apparatus. This version features a new bankruptcy 18, Variable-Refrigerant-Flow structures, which describes those structures, their elements, and appropriate criteria intimately, and encompasses a procedure layout instance and critical assistance on expenses, controls, and safeguard. This instruction manual is a reference for engineers operating in HVAC&R and for execs in allied fields. ASHRAE, based in 1894, is a world association of a few 50,000 folks. ASHRAE fulfills its challenge of advancing heating, air flow, air con, and refrigeration to serve humanity and advertise a sustainable global via learn, criteria writing, publishing, and carrying on with schooling.
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Additional info for 2012 ASHRAE Handbook - Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Systems and Equipment (SI Edition)
These specialized control systems can be based on different architectures such as distributed controls, programmable logic controllers, or microprocessor-based systems. Beyond standard control technology, the following control points and strategies may be needed for primary equipment, ancillary equipment, and the overall system: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Discharge temperature and/or pressure Return distribution medium temperature Head pressure for refrigerant and/or distribution medium Stack temperature Carbon monoxide and/or carbon dioxide level Differential pressures Flow rate of distribution medium Peak and hourly refrigeration output Peak and hourly heat energy output Peak and hourly steam output Flow rate of fuel(s) Reset control of temperature and/or pressure Night setback Economizer cycle Variable flow through equipment and/or system control Variable-frequency drive control Thermal storage control Heat recovery cycle See Chapter 42 of the 2011 ASHRAE Handbook—HVAC Applications for more information on control strategies and optimization.
When completing TAB and commissioning, consider posting laminated system flow diagrams at or adjacent to the central cooling and heating equipment, indicating operating instructions, TAB performance, commissioning functional performance tests, and emergency shutoff procedures. 10 2012 ASHRAE Handbook—HVAC Systems and Equipment (SI) filed electronically in the central plant computer server for quick reference. Original basis of design and design criteria should be posted as a constant reminder of design intent, and to be readily available in case troubleshooting, expansion, or modernization is needed.
System selection should be related to the need, as indicated by the load characteristics. The designer should understand the operation of system components, their relationship to the psychrometric chart, and their interaction under various operating conditions and system configurations. The design engineer must properly determine an air-handling system’s required supply air temperature and volume; outdoor air requirements; desired space pressures; heating and cooling coil capacities; humidification and dehumidification capacities; return, relief, and exhaust air volume requirements; and required pressure capabilities of the fan(s).