By American Society of Heating Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers
This guide covers the refrigeration gear and structures for purposes except human convenience. This e-book contains info on cooling, freezing, and storing foodstuff; commercial purposes of refrigeration; and low-temperature refrigeration. basically a reference for the training engineer, this quantity can be worthy for an individual thinking about cooling and garage of nutrients items. This variation comprises new chapters. bankruptcy three, Carbon Dioxide Refrigeration platforms, describes the background of this "natural refrigerant" and why it's the topic of renewed curiosity this day. The bankruptcy includes dialogue and diagrams on CO2 refrigerant purposes, procedure layout, gear, safeguard, lubricants, commissioning, operation, and upkeep. bankruptcy 50, Terminology of Refrigeration, lists a few of the universal phrases utilized in commercial refrigeration platforms, fairly platforms utilizing ammonia because the refrigerant.
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Additional info for 2010 ASHRAE Handbook - Refrigeration (SI Edition)
REFRIGERANT DISTRIBUTION To prevent underfeeding and excessive overfeeding of refrigerants, metering devices regulate the liquid feed to each evaporator and/or evaporator circuit. An automatic regulating device continuously controls refrigerant feed to the design value. Other common devices are hand expansion valves, calibrated regulating valves, orifices, and distributors. It is time-consuming to adjust hand expansion valves to achieve ideal flow conditions. 3 Liquid Overfeed Systems available.
Gas-pumped systems, which use refrigerant gas to pump liquid to the evaporators or to the controlled-pressure receiver, require additional compressor volume, from which no useful refrigeration is obtained. These systems consume 4 to 10% or more of the compressor power to maintain refrigerant flow. If condensing pressure is reduced as much as 70 kPa, the compressor power per unit of refrigeration drops by about 7%. Where outdoor dry- and wet-bulb conditions allow, a mechanical pump can be used to pump gas with no effect on evaporator performance.
In such cases, other defrosting methods should be investigated. The possibility of connecting the units directly to high-pressure liquid should be considered, especially if the loads are minor. When a check valve and a solenoid valve are paired on an overfeed system liquid line, the check valve should be downstream from the solenoid valve. When the solenoid valve is closed, dangerous hydraulic pressure can build up from expansion of the trapped liquid as it is heated. 6 are used, entering liquid pressure should be high enough to cause flow into the evaporator.