By American Society of Heating Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers
The 2009 ASHRAE guide - basics covers uncomplicated ideas and knowledge utilized in the HVAC&R undefined. up to date with examine backed by means of ASHRAE and others, this quantity contains 39 chapters overlaying basic engineering details, uncomplicated fabrics, weather info, load and effort calculations, duct and pipe layout, and sustainability, plus reference tables for abbreviations and logos, in addition to actual houses of fabrics. From the CD-ROM, the climatic layout stipulations tables were further to this reference, that includes climatic conditions for almost each significant urban on this planet.
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Extra info for 2009 ASHRAE Handbook - Fundamentals (I-P Edition)
System head required to overcome losses increases roughly as the square of the flow rate. The flow rate of a given system is that where the two curves of head versus flow rate intersect (point 1 in Figure 17). When a control valve (or damper) is partially closed, it increases losses and reduces flow (point 2 in Figure 17). For cases of constant head, the flow decrease caused by valving is not as great as that indicated in Figures 15 and 16. Flow Measurement The general principles noted (the continuity and Bernoulli equations) are basic to most fluid-metering devices.
With severe cavitation, the resulting unsteady flow can produce indirect noise from induced vibration of adjacent parts. See Chapter 47 of the 2007 ASHRAE Handbook— HVAC Applications for more information on sound control. The disturbed laminar flow behind cylinders can be an oscillating motion. 21 for a circular cylinder of diameter d, over a considerable range of Reynolds numbers. This oscillating flow can be a powerful noise source, particularly when f is close to the natural frequency of the cylinder or some nearby structural member so that resonance occurs.
Ideal-fluid theory, using free streamlines, provides insight and predicts contraction coefficients for valves, orifices, and vanes (Robertson 1965). These geometric flow separations produce large losses. To expand a flow efficiently or to have an entrance with minimum losses, design the device with gradual contours, a diffuser, or a rounded entrance. Flow devices with gradual contours are subject to separation that is more difficult to predict, because it involves the dynamics of boundary-layer growth under an adverse pressure gradient rather than flow over a sharp corner.